Sunday, September 22, 2019

Role of Women Essay Example for Free

Role of Women Essay In this essay I will investigate what the role status was of women in Britain in the late 1940’s 50’s. I will examine the lives of women in Britain before World War II, during the war, instantly after and in the period of 1950’s to analyse if the roles and status of women altered during these periods in what manner and why. Overall I would conclude by evaluating if womens independence increased or whether it remained limited by the period 1950’s. Before the World War II the roles of women in Britain was to be Housewifes and mothers they had to take care of the family and the house, this was tradition and they had to follow it if any women who wouldn’t do this was seen as extraordinary.During this period there was a lot prejudice and discrimination towards women however in the same society men were seen as the more powerful gender. The men worked and brought the money the women didn’t so their status was seen as low there job was to looking after the future of the nation the children. During the war there were critical changes in the roles and status of women, the government need the women to keep the country running and also helping the war effort by taking jobs in artillery factories, ammunition production, wardens etc. The women were working in jobs which were once seen as only for men due to their physical strength however in this period women demonstrated that they could take such jobs on. Although women started to work and had new roles they did however fulfil their prior roles as Housewifes mothers taking on more than one role which they didn’t have an opportunity to do before the war. The status of women throughout this period increased due to them the country was still running and they were helping the war effort dearly, however they weren’t still seen as equal to men in status and were considered as second to men. The women were just substitutes for work until the men would return from war. In this period some women weren’t shown equality due to not receiving equal pay as men, when women school teachers asked for equal pay as men teachers, Churchill dismissed their demands with one word, â€Å"impertinence.† These women weren’t successful however some women at a Rolls Royce factory went on strike for a week for equal pay and eventually got it, this shows some women at this period were victorious in getting equal pay but not all women got equal pay. Instantly after the war men were demobilized and sent back home from the war this impacted women extremely since the independence they had during the war would no longer exist. The women were instructed to go back home and fulfil their previous roles which they had before the war and the men would return to the jobs. Many women however better suited some jobs than men but weren’t kept after the war only because they were women they were told that their priories should be at home. This can be seen when a deputy newspaper editor was told she was dismissed, â€Å"Oh it’s nothing wrong with your work, but we have to safeguard the succession and the successor had to be a man.† The status of women during this period was shown as higher since the women had a very important duty which was to look after the nation by bringing up the children. In the period of 1950’s some women wanted to carry on working work but were allowed part time jobs which could be easily dismissed, many women were told that they should look after the homes working wasn’t there roles such women who wanted to work were seen as unusual by the society of Britain. In the advertisement published by the government which said â€Å"Your after-the-ware dream is coming true. Now yours will be the responsibility of looking after the nation’s health† clarifies the point. The Beveridge report recommended a welfare state for the nation which was introduced by the government this benefited women economically, politically and socially this meant women no longer needed to depend on the men. The welfare state launched the National heath services which promised to provide health care for everybody this was the first time women were covered in health, furthermore it paid family allowance directly to the women this gave women more independence and money of there own which they could use on their desire. The affluence increased in the 1950’s due to the welfare state, this changed the lives of the women since they could purchase labour saving appliances which gave them more time and independence from the home they no longer needed to spend a whole exhausting day washing the cloths. To conclude, I belive that women gained more independence in the period of the 1950`s exceeding from just being house wife’s and mothers. The Beverigde report and the welfare sate transformed womens life giving them importance and care, furthermore the increased affluence also provided women with labour saving appliances and increase in independence. Although these changes had been made they did not completely change womens independence it was still limited in various ways one of the ways was women were only allowed part time jobs. The roles of women in theses period was to be housewife’s and mothers though economical, social and political changes brought increase in independence however, it can also be seen as not equal to men and limited.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

ASDA Business Strategy

ASDA Business Strategy ASDA is the UKs second largest supermarket chain, holding a 17.2% market share in the UK over 2013/2014 (Kantar Worldpanel, 2014). It was purchased in 1999 and became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the US Public Limited Company, Walmart. In order to analyse the business environment, this essay will first consider the ASDA Groups internal environment, including their objectives, policies, organisational structure and reputation. The second focus will be the external environment; first the range of competitors in the market, followed by a PESTLE (Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Legal, Environmental/Ethical) analysis, to develop a holistic summary of the external environment. Where appropriate, several sections of the PESTLE analysis have been merged to create a more accurate summary of the external environment. Internal Objectives and Policies ASDAs primary operations consist of retail of food, apparel, general merchandise and other services (ASDA Group Ltd, 2013). Their strategic objectives are to provide high quality products, exceed consumer desires and reduce costs (ASDA Group Ltd, 2010; ASDA Group Ltd, 2013). They have an additional series of sustainability objectives designed to reduce environmental impact and reduce operating costs simultaneously. Walmart, ASDAs ultimate parent company, are focused on the opportunities provided by the e-commerce market (Walmart, 2014). To that end, ASDA provides both online shopping and delivery services and a Click and Collect programme, allowing customers to order products online for collection from a local ASDA branch (ASDA Group Ltd, 2013). ASDA have developed a growth strategy, combining expanding reach online and physically, with reduced operating costs overall. They have also identified the need for innovation and expansion into new product ranges, expanding their brand identity. As part of the Walmart group, they benefit from the research and development of other Walmart subsidiaries (ASDA Group Ltd, 2013; Walmart, 2014). In 2013, in the midst of the recession, ASDA continued to open 15 new stores and has opened more in 2014 (ASDA Group Ltd, 2013). Structure Walmart purchased ASDA in 1999, demonstrating a strategy of growth by acquisition. Following this, ASDA has used its core competencies of providing low-cost, good-quality products to gain market share and has become the second largest supermarket brand in the UK. As a subsidiary of Walmart, ASDA is provided with certain benefits. ASDA particularly benefits from the IT expertise from its parent company, in addition to benefitting from the research and development of other Walmart group members (ASDA Group Ltd, 2013). Walmart also benefits by adopting best practices developed by ASDA from their online grocery shopping service (Walmart, 2014). Members of the Walmart group are also able to take advantage of intercompany loans to provide internal financing opportunities. ASDA has over 500 locations in the UK, ranging from supercentres down to supermarkets. This range of shopping facilities is designed to meet customer needs at different levels (ASDA Group Ltd, 2010; Euromonitor International, 2014). They have implemented a price guarantee, ensuring prices remain consistent across ASDA stores, regardless of their size; this is intended to challenge other brands with higher prices in smaller, local supermarket branches (ASDA Group Ltd, 2010). Reputation ASDA have also been able to leverage the reputation of their US parent company and were the first major UK retailer to introduce a Black Friday shopping event in 2013. This was repeated in 2014 by many retailers and drew many customers to take advantage of the low-cost goods. ASDAs reputation for low-cost, high-quality goods can also be leveraged in their growth strategy. Their efforts to reduce operating costs and subsequent price reductions for consumers is intended to be appealing to price-conscious consumers (ASDA Group Ltd, 2013). As detailed below, this is a growing attitude among the UK supermarket customer-base and provides a possible avenue for growth. External Competitors ASDA faces direct from ALDI and LIDL, two supermarket chains who share similar core competencies to ALDI, in that they offer low-cost, high-quality goods. Unlike ASDA, however, ALDI and LIDL offer a range of limited availability products, alongside their food retail. ASDA, by contrast, offers a wider range of general products, available via their online services and in their larger hypermarkets. ASDA is second of the UKs four largest supermarkets. Tesco holds the largest UK market share with 28.7%, and Sainsburys and Morrisons are next with 16.4% and 11.1% respectively (Kantar Worldpanel, 2014). ALDI and LIDL have grown significantly in recent years (Ruddick, 2014), it has been predicted that the profit margins of larger supermarkets, including ASDA, will have smaller profit margins in the short term (Beardsworth, 2014). Political, Legal, Environmental Ethical The House of Lords released a report in early 2014 challenging food waste in the EU and particularly in the UK (Harriet, 2014; House of Lords European Union Committee, 2014). In their report they argued that retailers, including supermarkets such as ASDA, bear significant responsibility for preventing food waste. Specifically, retailers have a responsibility to ensure that customers are aware of how to store food, ensure date labelling is appropriate, avoid cancellation of grown food orders after it has been produced (Harriet, 2014; House of Lords European Union Committee, 2014). Additionally, it explicitly stated: It is clear that retailers must assume a far greater responsibility for the prevention of food waste in the home. Retailers must ensure that incentives and promotions offered to consumers do not transfer waste from the store to the household. (House of Lords European Union Committee, 2014, p. 26). The House of Commons Business Select Committee also considered investigating reports of supermarket aggression when dealing with suppliers, using their market power to demand prices that suppliers cannot sustain (Armitage, 2014). This was motivated by reports of behaviour from Tesco, a competitor of ASDA. ASDA submitted evidence to the House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee summarising their dedication to sustainability and positive mutually beneficial relations with suppliers in 2011 (House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, 2012). Additionally, they have instituted a policy of minimising food waste by sending no food waste to landfill sites. Instead, food is either given to charities or converted into alternative products. Another source of difficulty is the Food Standards Agencys year-long survey on campylobacter contamination in supermarket chickens. This bacteria is the most common cause of food poisoning in the UK, however it can be killed via normal cooking processes as long as food is properly cooked. The interim findings of this survey showed ASDA to have the highest rate of contamination of raw chicken products across UK supermarkets, above the industry average (Food Standards Agency, 2014) ASDA has agreed to install a new steam sterilisation technology to test the efficacy in reducing contamination. The press have publicised these contamination rates in a pejorative manner, with headlines such as Asda exposed as supermarket with dirtiest chicken (Hyde, 2014) and Supermarket chickens: 70% affected by food bug (BBC News, 2014). This, combined with the condemnation of consumer groups, including Which? (Which?, 2014), poses a significant threat to ASDAs reputation. This political environment could provide new difficulties for ASDA, with the need to introduce new decontamination facilities in their factories and the associated costs this entails. Additionally, the pejorative press response could have a severe impact on ASDAs reputation. The House of Lords Committees criticism of supermarket promotions and incentives could also impact ASDAs retail activities. If such promotions are legislated against, ASDA would be deprived of a major means of drawing price-conscious consumers. Economic Socio-Cultural In 2011 Mervyn King, Governor of the Bank of England, announced that the global financial crisis had significantly impacted standards of living and would continue to do so for the foreseeable future (Bank of England, 2011). 2014 was the first time in 5 years that average pay increased more than inflation, suggesting a possible upturn in the economy (Peston, 2014). This has led to a reduction in consumers disposable income and this in turn has impacted their spending habits in stores. ASDA has been aware of this and has taken efforts to reduce operating costs to offset inflationary pressures on prices (ASDA Group Ltd, 2013). Traditionally, supermarkets had a close link to cultural identity among UK shoppers, based on the British class system (Wallop, 2013). Supermarkets such as Waitrose and Marks Spencer were traditionally associated with upper-middle and upper class customers, while ASDA was traditionally seen as a working class supermarket (Jeffries, 2004). In recent years however, this sense of identity has been disrupted by a combination of the global recession, and the rise of the budget supermarkets ALDI and LIDL. Both brands have been widely accepted by the British middle class, and a wider cultural attitude of thrift and pride in finding savings and low-cost products has developed. In the 2014 Christmas season, Aldi and Lidl, the discount supermarket chains drew a significant portion of the market from other supermarket brands (Butler, 2014) indicating that consumer buying decisions are motivated by price over other socio-economic factors. This could explain ASDAs recent rise to the second largest market shareholder in Britain, due to its core competency in providing low-cost, good-quality products to customers. Where previously, consumers may have had a negative association with ASDAs emphasis on low-cost products, in the recession era, consumers are more concerned with product prices. Technological Walmart, ASDAs ultimate parent company, have noted the rising significance of e-commerce and have begun developing this across Walmart and its subsidiaries (Walmart, 2014). In the UK, there has been a particular focus on ASDAs Click Collect service (Walmart, 2014), through which customers order products online and can collect them from a local ASDA store, widening the range of products they can access. The strategy consultants, OCC, identified Click and Collect as the probable largest source of growth in e-commerce in 2015 (Felsted, 2014). ASDAs competitor, Tesco, offer a similar service, available in over 350 collection points (Felsted, 2014; Tesco, 2014). ASDA is well-suited for this focus on Click Collect and other e-commerce services; as a subsidiary of Walmart, they are provided with IT services from their parent company, giving them access to the resources of a larger firm, with a wide range of experience in e-commerce (ASDA Group Ltd, 2013). Summary Overall, ASDAs external environment is relatively troubled; UK standards of living were significantly reduced by the global economic crisis and only recently have signs indicated that this could improve. This has reduced the disposable income of ASDAs target markets. However, because of ASDAs focus on low-cost products, this could have actually benefitted ASDA, allowing them to become the second largest supermarket brand. The economic crisis has altered the UKs socio-cultural trends, encouraging a savings-focussed attitude, with customers altering their buying habits to pursue better deals. ASDA has also faced difficulties in its public reputation, particularly due to the Food Standards Agencys survey into campylobacter contamination in chicken. ASDAs chicken stocks and suppliers were found to have the worst contamination rates among supermarkets, above the industry average. This finding was well publicised in the press in late November and its full impact may not have been identified yet. ASDA have identified the difficult external environment of UK retail and have oriented their policies to suit the situation. They have endeavoured to gain price leadership, charging the same as or less than their competitors for many household products, in order to draw price-conscious customers. Additionally, they have taken efforts to minimise their own operating costs, using these savings to offset inflationary pressures and passing the savings on to consumers. ASDA have chosen to diversify their focus beyond store-based services. They have invested significantly into technological development, particularly with their Click and Collect service. External strategy consultants OCC have identified these services as having high growth potential in coming years. ASDA have chosen to capitalise on the troubled economic environment by reinforcing their core competency, providing customers with low-cost, good-quality goods, leveraging their reputation as a low-cost supermarket to take advantage of the low disposable income. They have also used this period to advance their technological development, with technical support from their parent company. References Armitage, J. (2014, September 25). MPs considering investigation of supermarkets dealings with suppliers in wake of Tesco crisis. Retrieved from The Independent: ASDA Group Ltd. (2010). All About ASDA. Retrieved from ASDA Group Website: ASDA Group Ltd. (2013, December 31). Report and Financial Statements. Retrieved from Companycheck: Bank of England. (2011). Speech given by Mervyn King, Governor of the Bank of England at the Civic Centre, Newcastle. London: Bank of England. BBC News. (2014, November 27). Supermarket chickens: 70% affected by food bug. Retrieved from BBC News: Beardsworth, T. (2014, October 17). Aldi and Lidl to Capture 10 Percent of U.K Grocery Market. Retrieved from Bloomberg: Butler, S. (2014, December 16). Merry Lidl Christmas for German discount supermarkets. Retrieved from The Guardian: Euromonitor International. (2014). Passport: ASDA Stores Ltd in Retailing (United Kingdom). Euromonitor International. Felsted, A. (2014, April 21). Click and collect poised to overtake home delivery. Retrieved from The Financial Times: Food Standards Agency. (2014, November 27). Retail survey on levels of campylobacter in chicken published. Retrieved from The Food Standards Agency: Harriet, D. (2014, April 6). MPs accuse supermarkets of morally repugnant food waste. Retrieved from The Telegraph: House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee. (2012, May 10). Written evidence submitted by ASDA. Retrieved from Parliament Publications and Records: House of Lords European Union Committee. (2014). Counting the Cost of Food Waste: EU Food Waste Prevention. London: The Stationery Office Limited. Hyde, D. (2014, November 27). Asda exposed as supermarket with dirtiest chicken. Retrieved from The Telegraph: Jeffries, S. (2004, March 12). Im rich and Im living well. Shopping here is part of that. Retrieved from The Guardian: Kantar Worldpanel. (2014, November). Market share of grocery stores in Great Britain, for the 12 weeks ending November 9, 2014. Retrieved from Peston, R. (2014, November 12). End of UKs long living-standards squeeze? Retrieved from BBC News: Ruddick, G. (2014, August 28). Lidl sales to reach  £4bn as pressure on supermarkets grows. Retrieved from The Telegraph: Tesco. (2014). Click Collect. Retrieved from Tesco: Wallop, H. (2013, January 18). How supermarkets prop up our class system. Retrieved from The Telegraph: Walmart. (2014). Walmart 2014 Annual Report. Retrieved from Walmart Investor Relations: Which? (2014, November 27). Six in 10 consumers concerned at high levels of campylobacter in chicken. Retrieved from Which? Press Office:

Friday, September 20, 2019

Fantomina by Eliza Haywood | Analysis

Fantomina by Eliza Haywood | Analysis The actions the young lady in Eliza Haywoods Fantomina in her desire to find a sexually and emotionally stimulating relationship demonstrates the difficulty of relationships between men and woman in the eighteen century. My lady such- a-one, as she is referred to by Haywood takes the roles of many different women to repeatedly seduce a man named Beauplasir. For the most part of her new identities, Fantominas creative ideas resemble her increased desire for Beauplasir and her initial curiosity becomes reflected upon her need to change her identity in order to recapture Beauplasirs attention. Fantomina enjoys the fact that her disguises allow her do anything that she wishes, although, she seems to not think of the idea that a relationship between an upper class man and a low class woman is not very lasting and that her actions will eventually make herself the author of her own story. Fantomina is a high quality mistress in the eighteenth century and because of her social position she has many restrictions placed upon her. She is not allowed to carry out a conversation of any type with a person of the opposite sex, nor is she allowed to pursue them. These behaviors were unacceptable in Fantominas society; therefore, women were supposed to have chaperones who were to protect them from men and also to make sure women behaved appropriately. Fantominas recognition of a familiar face down below the balcony where she is sitting at reawakens her interest for Beauplasir whom she she has before seen, but because of society she has been unable to pursue him. However, because men were different from women and had the freedom to do anything they wanted to, Beauplasir is allowed to leave the balcony and pursue women. Fantomina is fascinated by the dalliance between respectable gentlemen and loose women of the town. This excited a curiosity in her to know in what manner these c reatures were addressed. (Haywood, 2739- 2740). Although, Fantominass actions seem intentional her new identity originates all from curiosity in her pursuit to sustain Beauplasirs interest. Fed up with her restrictions, Fantomina decides to change her clothes to hide her real identity. It is here where Haywood reveals the restrictions on women of high social standing and the decisions of who belongs to what social position. In this case, clothing puts Fantomina in a lower social standing, even more, her new identity is that of a prostitute. Now as a prostitute, Fantomina is able to pursue Beauplasir without any restrictions as he is unable to recognize her new identity. In preparation to her encounter with Beauplasir, Fontamina puts on her new identity and while with Beauplasir she resists him at first because she is worried about her reputation. At this point, Fantomina is concerned about her moral actions, but her desires can do more now because that is what she has been looking for. This of course, confuses Beauplasir because thats what prostitutes are expected to do and in the end a prostitute gets paid in return. Fantominas first disguise as a prostitute is all out of curiosity, but her imagination was so much talented that she had the power to change her appearance as she pleased. As Fantomina changes character, she modifies her behaviors to align with his expectations. ( Anderson 2005). The quote describes Fantominas admirable skills in manipulating the situation for her own benefit. As expected, Beauplasir grows tired of Fantomina and this is where she takes on her new identity to continue to follow him. Now as Celia, a low class woman she becomes Beauplasirs maid, a new identity that becomes a bit more important than the one before because of social status .As her seduction continues she feels that she has become attached to Beauplasir and she cant let go of him she spends much of her time coming up with new ideas to seduce him. Her actions become a little emotional, but at the same time she intelligent as she is willing to go even further to maintain her sexual relationship with Beauplasir. It seems that what had started from curiosity has now turned into a passion that reflects her deepest emotions. Her consistent ability to perform means that she repeatedly creates a space in which she may express her emotions. (Anderson 2005). In a sense, Fantomina feels that she belongs to Beauplasir since he has taken her virginity and she attaches this to the fact that she now struggles to maintain her honor from being publicly exposed. Fantominas now passion for Beauplasir leads her to go even further in her seduction attempt. This time, as the widow bloomer she becomes a little more vulnerable and portrays herself as weak. At one point, the widow fakes a sudden faint and allows Beauplasir to carry her off to bed. This proves that Fantomina is very calculating and her actions are being consistent with the character she assumes to be. In doing so, Fantomina believes her different roles are a source of power and freedom, but also her ability to succeed in her new role taking. Although, the role that she takes on for the most part is powerless because she gains nothing from it, she has quite effectively succeeded in making Beauplasir believe that he has been sleeping with different personas. In her last disguise as Incognita, the significant thing they have in common is class and as the encounters continue, it seems that Fantominas actions are driven by pure lust. Incognita its Fantominas last attempt to seduce Beauplasir and it ultimately fails just as her other disguises. Despie Beuaplasir being desperately curious to know who she really is he never shows real interest in maintaining a relationship with Incognita because in the end he has nothing to gain from a woman who demands that her identity never be revealed. This culminates with Fantominas realization that Beauplasirs real interest for her has been to satisfy his own sexual needs as he never remained faithful to her for the simple fact that he slept with the same person thinking he had been with four different women. Croskery describes that, the heroine of Fantomina experiences one of her deepest moment of internalization at the precise moment when she becomes conscious of herself as an object of someone elses d esire. ( Croskery 2007). Through Beauplasir, the reader realizes that women are nothing but trophies and toys that are to be played with. Ultimately, Fantominas various identities accomplish nothing; they do serve to reveal how lustful Beauplasir is as well as Fantomina whether she acted on curiosity her real intentions remain ambiguous. Unfortunately, Fantominas creative disguises only satisfy her sexual desires, but never create a long- lasting relationship with Beauplasir which results in her own betrayal. Fantominas pregnancy becomes her true story in which she has lost everything including her reputation. Sources Cited Anderson, Emily Horgdson. Performing the passions in Eliza Haywoods Fantomina and Miss Betsy Thoughtless. Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation 46.1 (Spring 2005):1. Literary Resource center. Web. 1 December 2012. Croskery, Margaret Case. Who is Afraid of Eliza Haywood. Literary Critiscism from 1400- 1800 4.4 (2007): 967-980. Literary Resourse Center. Web. 1 December 2012. Eliza, Haywood. Fantomina: or Love in A maze. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and M.H. Abrams. 9th ed. Volume C. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012. 2739-2758. Print. Potter, Tiffani. The Language of Feminised Sexuality: Gendered Voice in Eliza Haywoods Love in Excess and Fantomina. Womens Writing 10.1(March 2003): 169-18. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 November 2012. Thompson, Helen. Plotting Materialism: Eliza Haywoods Fantomina and Feminine Consistency. Eighteen Century Studies 35.2(Winter 2002): 195-20. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 November 2012.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essay Comparing Beowulf and The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki

Beowulf and The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki      Ã‚   There are so many similarities between the hero of the poem Beowulf and The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki, an Iceland saga representing 1000 years of oral traditions prior to the 1300’s when it was written, that these similarities cannot be attributed solely to coincidence.    The Cambridge History of English and American Literature states that the hero of the poem, Beowulf himself, may be the same person as Bodvar Biarki, the chief of Hrolfr Kraki’s knights (v1, ch3, s3, n13). George Clark in â€Å"The Hero and the Theme† mentions: â€Å"The form of Beowulf taken as a whole suggests both the ‘Bear’s Son’ folktale type (especially as we find it in Scandinavia) and the ‘combat myth’. . . .† (286). In The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki, Bodvar is the grandson of a king (Hring); in Beowulf the hero is the grandson of a king (Hrethel). Bodvar’s father has been expelled from his country, Gautland; Beowulf’s father Ecgtheow has been expelled from Geatland. Bodvar’s father is dead; Beowulf’s father is dead (Hrothgar says,†his father, now dead, was named Ecgtheow†) (373). Bodvar as a boy was so strong that he was not permitted to take part in the king’s games past the ag e of twelve because he injured too many of his opponents; Beowulf as a young man was so strong that â€Å"he was the strongest of all living men† (196). Bodvar was huge; Beowulf was â€Å"noble and huge† (198). Bodvar was more noble than the people around him; Beowulf refused to accept the kingship from Queen Hygd upon Hygelac’s death, risked his life various times for the benefit of others, put his own welfare last instead of first, and distributed his wealth generously when it was warranted. â€Å"Though Beowulf is careful to collect his winnings, ... ...en and the gentlest, the kindest to his people† (3181).    The Iceland saga, The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki, written in the 1300’s, represents about 1000 years of oral traditions. The remarkable similarities between this saga’s main character and Beowulf’s main character are just too astounding to dismiss as mere coincidences.    BIBLIOGRAPHY    Chickering, Howell D.. Beowulf A dual-Language Edition. New York: Anchor Books, 1977.    Clark, Gorge. â€Å"The Hero and the Theme.† In A Beowulf Handbook, edited by Robert Bjork and John D. Niles. Lincoln, Nebraska: Uiversity of Nebraska Press, 1997.    The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki, translated by Jesse L. Byock. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.    Ward & Trent, et al. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1907–21; New York:, 2000

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Databases :: essays research papers

ABSTRACT The Automated Business Service System (ABSS) was designed for the military to process documents without wasting an enormous amount of time. The original way of processing a document involved typing the document up and visiting each person to sign off on it. Not only was this time consuming but there was no historical record available if the original document was lost or destroyed. ABSS uses an Oracle database and has changed the way finance processes documents forever.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Before I worked as the systems administrator for finance I was the budget analyst. I started using the Automated Business Service System (ABSS) over eight years ago and I think it is one of the best programs the Air Force has adopted. ABSS was written by a private company and has been implemented over multiple branches of the service. When the program first came on board at my base in Germany I was appointed as the functional administrator to maintain the program. I was in charge of maintaining all user accounts and assisting the resource advisors on base with building their flows. I also had to process documents for my program through ABSS. I had to quickly learn how to use this program as well as learn how the Oracle database stored all this pertinent data.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Before the system was put online I was trained for a few days on how to start building the database and getting the system ready for implementation. I would not responsible for maintaining the actual database. We had a remote database administrator that had the capability to access the database and ensure there were no problems. The actual server was in my office but I had no access to log into it. I could log into the program from any system and make changes to the database that way. The actual integrity of the database was not part of my duties. I had to start building all the accounts for each user within the database.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There was a lot of work to be accomplished before the database went live. Every person who needed to approve a document would have an account as well as a step in the process. A user would draft and submit a document. Each users account also had there electronic mailing address linked to it. This would allow the system to generate an e-mail and the next person in line to approve the document would be able to log into the system and take the appropriate action.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Diagnosis Of Acute Appendicitis Health And Social Care Essay

Among patients showing to an exigency section ague hurting of the lower venters is a frequent clinical characteristic ; really frequently taking to the intuition of acute appendicitis.The determination to execute surgery is normally based merely on research lab trials and the clinical rating by the sawbones. In order to better the diagnostic truth in these patients ultrasound and computed imaging have been used as clinical AIDSs with decreased negative laparotomy rates as a consequence. 1,2,5 Ultrasound in adept custodies can accomplish a high grade of truth 1, but the drawback of the technique is its perceiver dependence, with important differences in truth. Acute appendicitis ( AA ) is a common surgical status of the venters, the prompt diagnosing of which is rewarded by a pronounced lessening in morbidity and mortality 1. Although the determination to research a patient with suspected AA is based chiefly on disease history and physical findings, the clinical presentation is rarely typical. Therefore diagnostic mistakes are common, ensuing in a average incidence of perforation of 20 % and a negative laparotomy rate runing from 2 % to 30 % 1. During the past few old ages, there has been a turning tendency toward the usage of formal probabilistic logical thinking or quantitative informations as a usher to clinical determination devising. In this regard, several hiting systems, computer-based theoretical accounts, and algorithms 2-12 have been developed for back uping the diagnosing of AA on the footing of rating medical history, clinical symptoms and marks, and indexs of inflammatory response. Harmonizing to initial rating studies, these determination tools are cost-efficient and may supply considerable diagnostic AIDSs to doctors 13. However, the aforesaid theoretical accounts have non been routinely applied in general pattern because they have failed to accomplish equal truth in proof surveies 14-17. Roll uping grounds has suggested that US in experient custodies improves diagnostic truth in instances of suspected AA 18, 19. Therefore, sonographic imagination has been proposed as a diagnostic tool even in patients with a clinically high chance of AA, because it accurately depicts a high per centum of normal appendices and alternate diagnosings 20. However, these findings do non connote that sawboness may non use their clinical acumen to the direction of topics with suspected AA, inasmuch as series with false-negative sonographic rates of up to 24 % have been reported 21. Furthermore, merely light informations exist on the possible combination of US findings with clinical and laboratory variables as an incorporate determination tool 22. The purposes of the present survey were to develop a simple and dependable marking system that would integrate US appraisal and peculiar elements of clinical rating and research lab probe to supply high diagnostic truth in patients with suspected AA and to measure the public presentation of the derived categorization regulation as compared to that of antecedently proposed theoretical accounts in a independent database of topics with suspected AA.Patients AND METHODSThe present probe included overall 134 topics with suspected AA who were studied over a span of 2 old ages ( conducted between January 2005 and December 2006.The survey was experimental and no intercession was done except for the add-on of formalized informations aggregation. Subsequently, the public presentation of the mark in the above database was compared to that of 11 antecedently proposed diagnostic tonss for AA, which were besides calculated by utilizing informations from the population of the survey. The choice standards sing the aforesaid diagnostic tonss for AA were ( 1 ) development of each mark from patients showing with acute abdominal hurting, ( 2 ) old proof in at least one prospective survey and ( 3 ) feasibleness of each mark computation ( viz. no losing variables ) on the footing of the informations prospectively collected in our survey by utilizing a structured signifier that included a standardised questionnaire. Four independent forecasters of the presence of AA were expressed as an integer-based marking system, which were assigned a weight ( point ) to each forecaster and summed the weights of the forecasters that were present for a topic: [ figure of points = 6 for US positive for AA + 4 for tenderness in right lower quadrant + 3 for recoil tenderness + 2 for leucocyte count & A ; gt ; 12,000/?l ] identified in the analysis. Non-operated topics were assumed non to hold AA, because none of them developed appendicitis during followup of 3 hebdomads. Because the end of the present survey was to compare the new theoretical account with the legion old 1s, application of the new mark to the survey in order to cut down the negative appendicectomy rate was non possible without biasing the consequences. Hence, no score-based intercession took topographic point, and the determination to run or non was left to the judgement of the senior sawbones, who was non cognizant of the decision of each theoretical account for every person topic. All the ultrasound ( U/S ) scrutinies included in this survey were preformed by the senior graduate student occupant. In each patient the venters was ab initio examined at U/S by utilizing 2.5-5 MHz convex array transducer. This rating was supplemented with U/S appraisal of the appendix and the environing part by utilizing a 5 MHz additive array transducer and the ranked compaction techniqueStatistical AnalysisStatistical analysis was performed utilizing the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences package ( SPSS Inc, release 11.0 ) . Acute appendicitis at operation was used as the terminal point in the survey. Univariate correlativities between the presence of the aforesaid terminal point and clinical or laboratory characteristics were evaluated with the chi-squared trial, as appropriate for categorical informations, and with Student ‘s t-test for uninterrupted variables. Ninety-five per centum assurance intervals ( 95 % CIs ) were calculated for each comparing. 2 Ten 2 tab ular array was used to cipher the sensitiveness, specificity, negative prognostic value, positive prognostic value and truth. All trials of significance were two-tailed, and a p value less than 0.05 was considered to be important.ConsequenceThe above diagnostic mark was calculated for 134 indiscriminately selected patients ( 70 [ 52.2 % ] males, average age 28.7  ± 11.9 old ages [ scope ; 15-79 old ages ] ) hospitalized for suspected AA. Among the above topics, 73 ( 54.0 % ) went on to surgery and 58 ( 43.3 % ) had AA at operation. The application of the new categorization tool to the patients showed 96.5 % of topics with 8-15 points to hold AA ( Table 1 ) . The proposed dignostic theoretical account yielded a mark of & A ; lt ; 8 points for all 61 non-operated patients in the survey. The present theoretical account exceeded perceptibly the old 1s in diagnostic truth ( Figure 1 ) . The negative appendicectomy rate was 19.4 % ( 14 out of 72 operated patients ) . None of the 6 patients ( 4.5 % of entire ) who were in the subgroup with the lowest mark ( 0-4 points ) had AA, whereas in 56 ( 96.5 % ) of the patients with the highest mark ( 8-15 points ; n = 58 [ 41.8 % of entire ] ) , AA was the concluding diagnosing. Nevertheless, the proportion of topics with AA among patients with moderate tonss ( 5-7 points ; n = 70 [ 52.2 % of entire ] ) was really little ( 3 out of 70, 4.3 % ) . Therefore, utilizing the cut-off of ? 8 points for the diagnosing of AA in the survey, a really high chance of AA would hold been assigned to topics with 8-15 points ( 96.5 % , 56/58 ) as opposed to the really low chance for patients with 0-7 points ( 4.3 % , 3/70 ) .DiscussionThe theoretical account suggested in the present survey combines the diagnostic value of four variables: viz. two well-recognized clinical characteristics of AA ( tenderness in the right lower quarter-circle and bounce tenderness ) 1, US imagination, and leucocytosis, the latter reflecting the inflammatory response. The prominence of the aforesaid factors as independent correlatives of AA corroborates old studies, which have shown tonss non including the above clinical variables and leucocytosis to supply poorer favoritism 1, 15. With respect to the varied weighting of the four multivariate forecasters, a positive US happening surpassed any other factor by presenting an at least 5.5-fold addition to the chance of AA as suggested by 95 % CIs ( Table 3 ) . Harmonizing to the proposed threshold of ? 8 points, if the appendix is sonographically shown to be inflamed, the presence of at least one extra factor is required to set up AA, whereas in the absence of US showing AA, all three staying variables are necessary for the diagnosing. For illustration, the above theoretical account would propose the diagnosing of AA in a patient with leucocytosis and a positive US determination ( entire score 8 points ) , even if recoil or right lower quadrant tenderness were missing. The application of the new system to the external database yielded an impressive diagnostic truth of 96.5 % , which exceeded perceptibly the public presentation of old tonss. The high quality of the new mark could be attributed to the incorporation of an imaging mode in a formal determination tool for AA, which is the fresh diagnostic process introduced in the present survey. Although sonographic imagination of the venters has been established as a utile tool in diagnosing of AA being of peculiar value in patients with untypical presentation 23, its truth has been doubted in more recent big surveies and meta-analyses 18, 19, 21, 24-26. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that, when US is used as the finding factor for operative therapy, it can non be relied on to the exclusion of the sawbones ‘s careful and perennial rating 21. Furthermore, a prospective multicenter experimental test on 2280 patients with acute abdominal hurting reported no correlativity between the sonographic findings of the appendix and the diagnostic truth of the clinician, the rate of negative appendicectomy, and the perforation rates, therefore proposing no clear benefit of US scanning of the appendix in the everyday clinical puting 19. In add-on, echography failed to better the diagnostic truth or the negative appendicectomy rate and was even found to detain surgical aud ience and appendicectomy in a big survey that included 766 topics 24. However, it has been shown that US is unneeded when there is a high grade of clinical intuition as expressed by a positive Alvarado mark, whereas the extra information provided by US improves diagnostic truth in the instance of a negative or ambiguous Alvarado mark 25. Furthermore, a meta-analysis published in the in-between 1990s suggested that US is most helpful in patients with an undetermined chance of the disease after the initial rating and should non be used to except AA in topics with authoritative marks and symptoms because of the underlying comparatively high false-negative rate 18. Finally, a more recent meta-analysis on the value of US in the diagnosing of AA revealed dissatisfactory consequences in multi-center tests, proposing that the equal public presentation of echography in single-center surveies may non reflect surgical mundane life 26. Ultrasound is rapid, noninvasive, cheap, and requires no patient readying or contrast material disposal 23. Because it involves no ionizing radiation and excels in the word picture of acute gynaecological conditions, it is recommended as the initial imagination survey in kids 27 and in adult females 28, particularly during gestation 29. Yet, the restrictions of US include its decreased truth in corpulent or muscular topics, every bit good as in patients with pierced AA ( about 50 % ) compared to that observed in nonperforated AA ( 80 % ) 23. Furthermore, US is known to be extremely operator-dependent, the larning curve required to develop the technique for sonographically scanning the right lower quarter-circle is considerable, and there are many interpretative booby traps to be avoided 23. It has been shown, nevertheless, that even if radiology occupants or inexperient sawboness conduct the imagination, the truth of US is non lessened 30, 31. In any instance, although the standards for the US-based diagnosing of AA are well-established and dependable, the inexperient tester, working with hapless equipment and/or technique, will supply suboptimal consequences, and this possibility should be taken into history when integrating sonographic standards in the diagnostic form. The usage of US in the scene of suspected AA might be questioned in an epoch when appendiceal computed imaging ( CT ) has been demonstrated to supply an truth rate every bit high as 98 % in the diagnosing of AA, taking to improved patient attention and reduced usage of hospital resources 32. Furthermore, CT has repeatedly been shown to exhibit superior discriminatory capacity compared to US in both grownups and striplings with suspected AA 33-35, proposing that the proposed categorization system may non use to geographical countries where CT scanning is readily available on a 24-hour footing. In this survey, the inability to routinely execute CT scanning may account to a great extent for the comparatively high false positive rate of about 20 % . This figure of false positive diagnosings would be unacceptable in most Westernized states, where the appropriate CT use in community infirmaries has been shown to cut down the negative appendicectomy rate from 14 % -20 % to 2 % -7 % 36-38. H owever, because many parts of the universe wellness community may still non be able to afford CT scanning but can afford US equipment, the combined systematic execution of sonographic rating and clinical acumen could be valuable as suggested by the present survey. Because the coincident application of the preexisting theoretical accounts and the new mark to the same database has favored the latter, the several clinical deductions should be farther evaluated. A prospective interventional large-scale rating in different clinical environments, in an adequate controlled survey comparing a baseline stage without hiting to a subsequent stage with hiting would likely be the optimum attack 15, 16. To cut down prejudice with such a design, unvarying informations aggregation should be carried out harmonizing to changeless definitions, with standardised public presentation standards used to guarantee nonsubjective rating 16. Any diagnostic support for AA should be heartily welcomed if it has been proven to be clinically valuable, because intolerably high negative appendicectomy and perforation rates are still reported in many parts of the universe wellness community. However, apart from being familiar with elements non included in a quantitative theoretical account, doctors may be able to supply superior imputations of losing informations for an single patient and to incorporate the diagnostic estimation as portion of their overall patient appraisal. Therefore, including the proposed mark in the diagnostic process is deserving seeking and may heighten a sawboness prejudiced capacity, under the requirement that it will be considered as an adjunct in determination devising that can non replace careful surgical judgement. Table 1 Performance of the proposed diagnostic mark in the survey.Number of pointsNumber of patients [ n=134 ] ( % of sum )Acute appendicitis [ n=59,44.0 % ]Non appendicitis status [ n=75, 56.0 % ]Percentage of patients with appendicitis among patients with the several mark0-4 06 ( 4.5 % ) 0 06 0 % 5-7 70 ( 52.2 % ) 3 67 4.38 % 8-15 58 ( 43.3 % ) 56 2 96.5 % Table 2 Demographic, clinical, and laboratory features of the patients with suspected appendicitis.Patients ‘ features ( n = 134 )Acute appendicitis ( % ) [ n = 59, 44.0 % ]No appendicitis ( % ) [ n = 75, 56.0 % ]P valueDemographic informationsMale sex 35 ( 59.5 ) 40 ( 53.5 ) 0.292 Age [ mean  ± SD ( scope ) ] 27.2  ± 12.2 ( 15-85 ) 29.4  ± 14.7 ( 15-86 ) 0.889SymptomsAnorexia 40 ( 67.8 ) 53 ( 70.7 ) 0.675 Vomiting 28 ( 47.3 ) 28 ( 37.2 ) 0.076 Migration of hurting 36 ( 61.0 ) 25 ( 33.3 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Duration of symptoms & A ; lt ; 48 hours 49 ( 83.0 ) 49 ( 65.3 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001SignsTenderness in right lower quarter-circle 53 ( 89.8 ) 31 ( 41.3 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Rebound tenderness 36 ( 66.1 ) 19 ( 25.3 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Guarding 29 ( 49.1 ) 14 ( 18.6 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Rectal tenderness 16 ( 27.1 ) 24 ( 32.0 ) 0.321Laboratory informationsLeukocyte count & A ; gt ; 12,000/?l 36 ( 61.0 ) 8 ( 10.7 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Neutrophils & A ; gt ; 75 % 50 ( 84.7 ) 34 ( 45.4 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Temperature & A ; gt ; 37.5 & A ; deg ; C 43 ( 72.8 ) 44 ( 58.7 ) 0.008 Ultrasound positive for acute appendicitis 48 ( 81.4 ) 39 ( 5.2 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Table 3 Comparison of the proposed mark with the old 1s.Scoring instrumentTrue positiveFalse positiveTrue negativeFalse negativeTinSPCPPV ( 95 % CI )NPV ( 95 % CI )P ValueVan Way 71 29 85 16 81.6 74.6 71.0 ( 61.5-78.9 ) 84.2 ( 75.8-90.0 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Teicher 77 19 95 10 88.5 83.3 80.2 ( 71.1-86.9 ) 90.5 ( 83.4-94.7 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Arnbj & A ; ouml ; rnsson 71 33 81 16 81.6 71.1 68.3 ( 58.8-76.4 ) 83.5 ( 74.9-89.6 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Alvarado 78 27 87 9 89.7 76.3 74.3 ( 65.2-81.7 ) 90.6 ( 83.1-94.9 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Feny & A ; ouml ; 79 17 97 8 90.8 85.1 82.3 ( 73.5-88.6 ) 92.4 ( 85.7-96.1 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Lindberg 74 14 100 13 85.1 87.7 84.1 ( 75.1-90.3 ) 88.5 ( 81.3-93.2 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Izbicki 70 34 80 17 80.5 70.2 67.3 ( 57.8-75.6 ) 82.5 ( 73.7-88.8 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 De Dombal 70 31 83 17 80.5 72.8 69.3 ( 59.7-77.5 ) 83.0 ( 74.5-89.1 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Christian 74 17 97 13 85.1 85.1 81.3 ( 72.1-87.9 ) 88.2 ( 80.8-92.9 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Eskelinen 72 9 105 15 82.8 92.1 88.9 ( 80.2-94.1 ) 87.5 ( 80.4-92.3 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Ohmann 81 19 95 6 93.1 83.3 81.0 ( 72.2-87.5 ) 94.1 ( 87.6-97.2 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Our Proposed mark 55 2 74 3 95.4 97.4 96.5 ( 90.2-98.8 ) 96.5 ( 91.4-98.6 ) & A ; lt ; 0.001 Tin: sensitiveness ; SPC: specificity ; PPV: positive prognostic value ; NPV: negative prognostic value ; ACR: truth ; CI: assurance interval.Figure I. Accuracy of tonss in assorted surveies

Monday, September 16, 2019

Mentorship through Maslow’s Self-actualisation: Teaching, Learning and Assessment Theories

Introduction The past decades has seen the rise in mentorship programmes targeting individuals and groups. Interest in mentoring programmes has been fuelled in part by the increased recognition that mentorship results into positive relationships between the mentored and the adult mentors, which have been noted to promote resilience among youths (Wilson and Peterson, 2006). In other words, mentoring is a critical aspect of human growth with the ability to transform an individual’s hidden ability into an elite performer. However, it should never be assumed that the essential features of the natural association between an adult mentor and a young mentee is enough to influence the process of mentorship leading to satisfactory results. Moreover, most research studies have mainly focused on mentee benefits, while ignoring their motivation and interests. Because of its multidisciplinary nature, mentorship requires a multidimensional approach to issues. As such, various theories have been proposed to enhance mentorship programme’s effectiveness. Maslow’s humanistic theory is based on the notion that experience is the basic phenomenon in the study and understanding of human learning behaviour (Kenrick, 2010). Maslow emphasises on the importance of choice, creativity, values and self-actualisation as distinctive human qualities, indicating that meaningfulness and subjectivity are more significant than objectivity. In other words, Maslow rejects the behaviourism and psychoanalysis because of the belief that it leads to over-reliance on human frailty at the expense of human strengths. This paper expounds on how a mentor can use Maslow’s theory of self-actualisation to facilitate mentorship success, through the theories of teaching, learning and assessments. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs It’s prudent to highlight the Maslow’s five hierarchy of needs and what these needs stand for, before delving into how the last need, self-actualisation, is essential for a successful mentorship programme. Maslow developed hierarchy of needs, which is based on the study of psychology focusing on the subjective experiences and freewill. In other words, human needs do change through a person’s lifespan (Kenrick, et al., 2010). Maslow, thus, ranks the human needs from most basic physical needs to the most advanced self-actualisation. These ranks, which are often referred to as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are: psychological needs, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualisation. While physiological needs include essential things like food, air, water and any other factor that contribute to the human survival, the need for safety include issues to do with environmental security, job security, resource availability, healthcare and property ownership among others. In many instances, the loss for safety is experienced during economic crisis or a country experiencing a disaster. The sense of belonging, as another need, includes love, sense of friendship, intimacy, and family belonging among other needs. Belongingness is thus established after safety and physiological needs have been assured. But there is exception to this rule particularly where peer pressure is involved, which may lead an individual to solicit for belongingness to satisfy a societal standards. Then there esteem, a need that include issues such as confidence, self-esteem, and respect among others. This level of need builds on the need for interpersonal elements of need such as love and belonging through the elements of being accepted and valued. It may lead to a close interaction between a mentor and a mentee, which often results to development of strong interpersonal and communication skills to the latter (Lunsford, 2011). Lastly is the self-actualisation, which includes factors such as moral behaviour, creative thinking, and problem solving abilities. Self-actualisation, considered the most significant of all needs, is the driver of every other aspect of human need (McGuire, 2011). The theory of teaching, learning and assessment In order to facilitate the impact of mentorship, a mentor may use various approaches of teaching, learning and assessment. Individuals have their own specific way of learning and to recognise that everyone does not learn the same way. As such, the contemporary concept of learning views it as a process of active engagement (Craig, 2013; Wilson and Peterson, 2006). A mentor influences a mentee through provision of appropriate structure, expression of positive expectation, advocating and explaining, administering challenges to learners, provision of vision that is able to sustain the interests of the learners. According to Feeney (2007), for mentorship to be effective, mentees must be guided on a journey at the end of which the mentee develops into a different and become more accomplished. In the perspective of Maslow’s theory, a mentee is more likely to develop better career path if their interactions with their mentors is holistic. That is, mentees’ specific needs may directly influence their relationships with their mentors. For a mentorship programme to success, a mentor can focus on giving greater consideration in mentoring practice. Mentorship as processes of active engagement One of the most critical aspects of education and learning over the past few decades is the move away from the concept that â€Å"learner is a sponge† toward an image of â€Å"learner as active constructor of meaning† (Israel et al., 2014: 954). The contemporary theory of learning focuses on behaviour. In this aspect a particular behaviour will lead to another and that when a mentor act in a certain way, the mentee will also act in a certain way as well. The reasons why modern teaching, learning and assessment theories go hand-in-hand with Maslow’s theory, is that teachers hardly have control over the students’ ability to learn. This may also be replicated in mentoring, with a form of teaching that encourages mentors to facilitate learning process both within and outside their scope of control. Some of the things a mentor needs to observe is whether the mentee is motivated, comfortable with the learning methods employed, interested, and whether the learning environment encourages interactions. These requirements are all contained in the Maslow’s theory of self-actualisation. Holistic learning theory provides the basic premise of mentorship as it gives individual personality, which is comprised of elements such as intellect, emotions, desire, intuition and imagination (Lunsford, 2011). For learning to take place and be effective, all these elements must be activated. This is in line with Maslow’s theory that is based on the perspective that a person’s drive to learn is intrinsic, and is purposefully meant to achieve self-actualisation. In essence, the goal of a mentor should include the process of helping the mentee to achieve the desired self-actualisation of a mentee. In order to achieve the desired outcomes, it is necessary for mentors to establish relationships between mentors and mentees, which encourage patterns of regular contact over a significant period of time. Mentorship as a social phenomenon: the social theory of learning Another significant shift in the mentorship field is the growing awareness among mentorship theorists is that learners and mentees need social environment to facilitate learning and enhance the full benefit of mentorship. While previous learning theorists put more emphasis on individual learning, the current work places more emphasis on the critical role of social groups in the development of understanding and enhancement of mentorship success. Even though solitude and silent background provide good opportunities that are likely to favour learning process, the social occasions involved in various discussions, conversations, debate and partnership or group working equally play a critical role in the learning outcome. For example, small children may refer to everything with four legs as â€Å"dog†, but learn to separate a dog from a cat with time as they pronounce the names publicly and an adult gently amend their pronunciation. This kind of approach to learning sometimes is ref erred to as ‘activity theory’, which can be traced psychologist Vygotsky, 1981 (cited in Lunsford, 2011: 479), who theorised that social world has a strong influence on individual’s development. Self-actualisation, as one of Maslow’s five hierarchies of needs, deals with the idea of setting a sense of problem solving. A mentor can use the social interaction to enhance their mentees develop more problem- solving skills. The common concept about self-actualisation is that knowledge and practice is inseparable, because humans learn or know by doing (McGuire, 2011; Wilkes, 2006). This means that a mentor can look at mentees as they are doing something meaningful, such as solving an authentic problem, in case they want to understand what the mentees’ level of understanding. Learner difference as a resource Another significant shift that people have adopted is the value placed on individual and group differences. Quinn and Hughes (2007) observe that one of the self-evident truths of schooling is that learners come with varied experiences, capabilities, understandings, and backgrounds. As a person seeks mentorship to achieve high-quality of what they value most in their lives, the differences between individuals continue to widen. For example, as school environments become more democratic, teachers/ mentors are forced to learn to deal with the inherent differences that exist between the students/mentees. While in the traditional model of teaching, teachers often used the â€Å"deficit model† of students to draw and plan the learning process, modern teaching, based on mentorship, emphasises that the difference between mentees should be treated as a resource. This approach is in line with Maslow’s self-actualisation, which embraces the difference between individuals’ growth, which is treated as personal and fulfillment of one’s own potentials. A mentor, using this perspective, will focus on the difference between individual mentees as strength rather than a weakness, by focusing on each mentee’s own volition of success. In essence, a mentor should not use a standardised approach to building individual mentee’s personality. According to Maslow (1987, cited in Kenrick, 2010, p.4), a self-actualised person has a great sense of awareness, which allow them to maintain a near constant enjoyment of life. They often engage in activities that facilitate the feeling of unity with possible meaningful outcome. They also tend to develop some degree of acceptance for all that seem unchangeable as well as level of spontaneous and stamina to work on what is changeable (Kenrick, 2010). In essence, a self-actualised indiv idual has developed a complete and coherent personality that enables them to dictate their life’s direction. A mentor can use this approach by applying theories of learning to help them: Utilise and provide value to the contribution that a mentee brings to the table during the assessment process; Undertake, facilitate and act upon feedback from a mentee with regard to effectiveness of the learning environment; Allow the mentee to have some personal time for reflection of their personal as well as professional development; Provide value-oriented and timely feedback and evaluation of individual mentee’s level of proficiency (Gopee, 2011). The Theory of teaching for understanding The other shift that mentors have redirect their concern is based on assumptions that knowledge is based on what a mentee is to learn. Nicklin and Kenworthy (eds) (2003) state that this theory is no longer based on what mentees quietly master or learn, but is based on the contemporary educational reform that demands that students possess more flexible comprehension of issues in a broader concept. In other words, learners must not only know the basics but also how to use those basic skills to identify and solve non-traditional problems. Alternatively, the use of critical thinking is meant to emphasise teaching for understanding. This theory has specific underlying assumptions that to be considered competent in a specific field, one must master core ideas, concepts and facts, and more importantly, its processes of inquiry and arguments. Conclusion Although critics of Maslow’s self-actualisation believe that this approach of teaching and learning oversimplifies complicated ideas, it may not be right to suggest that ideas about learning, learners, and knowing are either mutually exclusive or monolithic. If anything, the compatibility of these ideas is one of the reasons for their popularity in the last three decades. The idea of developing skills needs to be holistic, and mentors need to adopt methods that would embrace the contemporary theories of teaching, learning and assessments to increase the effectiveness of mentorship. A mentor’s role in practice placement is critical helping a mentee go through successful learning and assessment process. Although the relationship that may develop between a mentor and a mentee is quite complicated, it is essential to establish certain form of association that allows a mentor to provide support while at the same time remain objective and analytical as well. From the perspective of a mentee, a good mentor is teacher who nurtures, while at the same time remains a ‘knowledgeable friend’ (Wikes, 2006). Maslow’s self- actualisation need can guide a mentor through identification of essential factors that would lead to a mentee becoming self-actualised. A mentor can facilitate the success of a mentorship process by jointly defining realistic expectations of their relationship with a mentee, to increase opportunities for understanding and trust. References Craig, C.A., Allen, M.W., Reid, M.F. Riemenschneider, C.K., and Armstrong, D.J. (2013) The impact of career mentoring and psychological mentoring on affective organisational commitment, job involvement, and turnover intention. Administration & Society, 45 (8): 949-973. Feeney, M.K. (2007) Toward a useful theory of mentoring: a conceptual analysis and critique. Administration & Society, 39 (6): 719-739. Gopee, N. (2011) Mentoring and Supervision in Healthcare. London: SAGE. Israel, M., Kamman, M.L., McCray, E.D., and Sindelar, P.T. (2014). Mentoring in action: The interplay among professional assistance, emotional support, and evaluation. Exceptional Children, 81 (1): 45-63. Kenrick, D. (2010) Rebuilding Maslow’s pyramid on an evolutionary foundation. Psychologytoday: Health, Help, Happiness + Find a therapist. Retrieved July 16, 2010 from http:/ maslow-s-pyramid-evolutionary-foundation. Kenrick, D.T., GrisKevicius, v., Neuburg, S.L., and Schaller, M. (2010). Renovating the pyramidof needs: Contemporary extensions built upon ancient foundations. Perspectives onPsychological Science, from Lunsford, L.G. (2011). Psychology of mentoring: The case of talented college students. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22 (3): 474-498. McGuire, K.J. (2011). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Munich, GRIN Publishing GmbH. ISBN 978-3656-23495-1. Nicklin, N. and Kenworthy, N. (eds) (2003) Teaching and assessing in Nursing Practice: An Experimental Approach. London: Bailliere Tindall. Quinn, F.M. and Hughes, S.J. (2007) Quinn’s principles and Practice of Nurse Education (5th edition). Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. Wilkes, Z (2006) The Student-Mentor relationship: a review of the literature. Nursing Standard. 20 (37). 42-47. Wilson, S., and Peterson, P.L. (2006) Theories of learning and teaching: what do they mean for educatorsWorking Paper. Available: [Accessed 12/12/2014].